cNES at a Glance

Combined natural and engineered solutions (cNES) are inspired and supported by nature, while maintaining and enhancing natural capital; they are sustainable measures that simultaneously meet environmental & socio-economic objectives

What is a cNES?

cNES are combined systems for water treatment which can be applied in various locations and operate under different conditions.

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Why choose cNES?

cNES make best use of the relative strengths of both natural and engineered processes in delivering safe and reliable water services to a growing population.

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How to apply a cNES?

Advanced research on the fundamental processes and performance of natural treatment systems provides the underpinning knowledge required to enable scaling up and demonstration of cNES.

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cNES Examples

The cNES Examples evidence the technical and economic feasibility of cNES, including information concerning their long-term performance and benefits, advice, and recommendations.

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