Uses And Users

Discharge of Treated Wastewater

Treated wastewater can be discharged to surface or groundwater bodies to:

  • Ensure water quality in receiving bodies for irrigation of field crops
  • Ensure water quality in receiving bodies for provision of cooling water
  • Ensure water quality in receiving bodies for bathing purposes
  • Enrich the groundwater table
  • Compensate infiltration and evaporation losses in lakes and ponds
  • Preserve adequate habitat quality
  • Increase base flows in streams
  • Improve the microclimate in cities through evaporation
Discharge of Treated Wastewater
Reuse of Treated Wastewater

Use of treated wastewater as an alternative water source to freshwater is attracting increasing attention worldwide. Water reuse can compensate water shortage, support supply security, save costs, protect water bodies and reduce the interference with the natural water balance. Reuse of treated wastewater can be considered a reliable water supply source for various purposes:

  • Landscape irrigation
  • Agricultural irrigation
  • Industrial uses (e.g. cooling water)
  • Aquifer recharge
  • Environmental protection & enhancement of ecosystem services
  • Recreational purposes (e.g. fishing, canoeing, bathing)
  • Potable water
Reuse of Treated Wastewater

Drinking Water Production

Drinking or potable water is used by households for direct consumption, cooking, personal hygiene and other domestic uses.

Water covers approximately 70% of the Earth's surface. Just 2.8 % of the water is fresh while 97.2% is saline. Potable water is available in the majority of populated areas, but in many cases the water supply is not sustainable. Potential potable water sources are the following:

  • Groundwater sources such as springs, hyporheic zones and aquifers
  • Precipitation e.g. rain, hail, snow, fog, etc.
  • Surface water such as lakes, rivers, streams, glaciers
  • Biological sources e.g. plants
  • Desalinated seawater
  • Atmospheric water generator

The concentration/presence of suspended solids, toxic chemicals and microorganisms is strictly regulated in drinking water. Maximum mineral concentrations are recommended by EU standards ensuring the supply of safe drinking water.

Drinking water
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