The synergistic benefits of cNES go beyond the mere addition of the processes. Combinations of natural systems with engineered processes increase removal efficiencies, reduce land requirements, and are essential to preserve the advantages of this low-cost, low-energy and ecosystem services providing treatment solution.
Whilst many natural treatment components have proven their effectiveness in water treatment over recent decades (Kazner et al., 2012) in addition to the ecological and social benefits compared to purely engineered systems (e.g. treatment systems as habitats, potential recreational use), their capacity may become limited due to space restrictions (e.g. size of CW and infiltration basins) or negatively impacted by flow variations during floods and droughts. Combination of natural treatment components with engineered pre- and post-treatment processes help to improve performance and increase treatment resilience of natural systems.
The reasons why engineered pre-treatment is necessary prior to natural systems are presented below.
The AquaNES DSS focus on three types of natural systems and their combinations with engineered pre- or post-treatment processes.
The engineered pre-treatment processes under consideration are presented below.
Examined engineered pre-treatment processes combined with MAR/SAT systems
Examined engineered pre-treatment processes combined with CW systems
The AquaNES Project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 689450
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